Its antecedency dates back to very early times in the Indian Medicine. Sayanha delineated that Guduchi / giloy is kept in every house to avoid (snakes and scorpions (Sounakīya Atharvaveda 6/56) & (Pānini Upādhi Bhojavrtta – 2/2/80). It is one of the non-contraversial and extensively used herbs in Ayurvedic medicine. Brhat Trayi texts mentioned it several times with important indications. Caraka quoted it among the Agrya dravyas (principal drugs) by attributing Grāhi, Vāta hara, Dīpanīya, Kapha-Rakta hara and Vibandhahara properties to it (C.S.Su.25). He also identified it as one of the the best Medhya Rasayānas (brain tonics).
Botanical Name – Tinospora cordifolia (Willd. Micrs ex Hook. f. & Thoms)
Family – MENISPERMACEAE
Synonyms – Avyathā. (Amrta.) Amộtavalli, Kundalil Guducikā. Gundra Cakrangi, Cakra laksana) Candrahasa, Jivantika. JVara nāśinī, Jvarāri, (Tantrika, Deva nirmitā, Dhārā, Nāga kanyakā. Nāga kumārikā, Bhișakpriyā, Mandali, (Madhuparni, Rasayani, Gudīuci Vatsādani, Vayasthā. Varā, Višalyā, Śyāma, Suraksta, Somā, Soma valli etc.
There is another variety of Guduchi / Giloy is known as Kandodbhavā Gudūcī described in Dhanvantari Nighantu. Kanļāmộtā, Kanda Guļūcikā, Piņdāmặtā, Bahucchitrā and Kanda rohini’.
१. (i) गूडूच्यमृतवल्ली च छिन्ना छिनरुहाऽमृता। छिन्नोद्भवाऽमृतलता धारा वत्सादनी स्मृता ॥ सैवोक्ता सोमवल्ली च कुण्डली चक्रलक्षणा। प्रोक्ता नागकुमारी च छिनाङ्गी ज्वरवाशिनी ॥ जीवन्ती मधुपर्णी च तन्त्रिका देवनिर्मिता। वयःस्था मण्डली सौम्या विशल्याऽमृतसम्भवा ।। रसायनी मृत्तिका व चन्द्रहासा भिषग्जिता। (ध.नि.१/१-४)
(ii) गूडूच्यामृता छिन्ना छिन्नांगा ज्वरनाशिनी। छिनोद्भवाऽमृतलता वय:स्था देवनिनिता ।। कुण्डली मण्डली श्यामा विशल्या नागकन्यका । चक्रांनी सोमवल्ली च धारा वत्सादनी तथा ।। जीवन्ती मधुपी च तंत्रिका च गुडूचिका। (शो.नि.१/९६-९८) .
(iii) गूडूची कुण्डली मा छिनोद्भवाऽमृता । मधुपर्णी छिनरुहा वयस्था चक्रलक्षणा ॥ चन्द्रहासाऽमृतलता धारा वत्सादनी वरा। पिण्डामृता शटीरूपा विच्छिन्ना कन्दरोहिणी । (कै.नि.१/७-८)
(iv) गूडूची मधुपी स्वादमृताऽमृतवल्लरी। छिन्ना छिन्नरुहा छिन्नोद्भवा वत्सादनीति च ॥ जीवन्ती तन्त्रिका लोमा सोमवल्ली च कुण्डली । चक्रलक्षणिका धीरा विशल्या च रसायनी ।। चन्द्रहासा वयस्था च मण्डली देवनिर्मिता ।। (भा.प्र.३/६-८)
(v) ज्ञेया गुडूच्यामृतवाल्यमृता ज्वरारि: श्यामा वरा सुरकृता मधुपर्णिका च। ‘ छिन्नोद्भवाऽमृतलता च रसायनी च छिना च सोमलतिकाऽमृतसंभवा च ।। वत्सादनी छिनरुहा विशल्या भिषप्रिया कुण्डलिनी वयस्था। जीवन्तिका नागकुमारिका च स्याच्छिधिका सैव च चण्डसहा ।। (रा.नि.३/१-२)
Note – Avyathā and Gundrā are the synonyms not familiar for Nighantus.
Vernacular Names of Giloy
- Marathi : Ambarvel
- Bengali : Giloy, Giloy, Gulancha, Gulavela
- Punjabi : Batindu
- Oriya : Gulochi, Gulancha, Gilogularich
- English : Gurjo, Heart-leaved moonseed
- Gujarati : Gado, Gulo
- Hindi : Giloe, Giloy, Gurach
- Sikkim : Gurjo
- Kannada : Amryta balli, Ugani balli
- Malayalain : Amryiu, Sittamrytu
- Tamil : Amrida Valli, Silam
- Telugu : Tippateega, Pattigai
(i) अन्या कन्दोद्भवा कन्दाऽमृतकन्दागुडूचिका । पिण्डामृता बहुच्छित्रा सा चोक्ता कन्दरोहिणी ।। (ध.नि. १ /४ )
(ii) अन्या कन्दोद्भवा कन्दामृता पिण्डगुडूचिका । बहुच्छिन्ना बहुरुहा पिण्डालुः कन्दरोहिणी॥ पूर्वा चाब्धिकराह्ना स्यादुत्तरा लोकसंज्ञिता। गुडूच्योरुभयोरित्थमेकत्रिंशदिहाभिधाः ।। (रा.नि.३ /३-४)
(iii) Píņdamětā, Sațhī rūpa, Vicchinnā & Kanda rohiņī are the synonyms of T.Mala barica (Linn.) Miers. (P.V, Sharmaji-Dravyaguna Vijñānam Vol.II).
Introduction of Giloy Plant
Caraka quoted it among the Agrya dravyas (principal drugs) by attributing Grahi, Vata hara, Dipaniya, Kapha-Rakta hara and Vibandhahara properties to it (C.S.Su.25). He also identified it as one of the the best Medhya Rasayanas (brain tonics).
Shusruta high-lighted the Pitta and Kapha hara properties of Guduchi / giloy while Vāgbhața emphasized its utility in ‘Vātarakta’. Among the Laghu Trayi, Sharangdhara stressed upon the utility of Guduchi afresh.
Shusruta, Vagbhata and Bhāvamiśra described one complete Varga (group of drugs) in the name of Guduchyadi varga. He for the first time disclosed the mythological background/origin of Guduchi / Giloy. According to him Guduchi / giloy story goes on like this : “During the fearsfull war between Rāma and Rävana several monkey worriers were killed by the enemy forces. At the end, lord Indra sprinkled elixer (Amrta) on their dead bodies and provided rebirth to the monkies. During the process where ever the elixer drops have fallen on the ground, Guduchi / Giloy plants originated.
अथलङ्केश्वरो मानी रावणो राक्षसाधिपः । रामपत्नी बलात्सीतां जहार मदनातुरः ।।
ततस्तं बलवान् रामो रिपुं जायाऽपहारिणम् । वृतो वानरसैन्येन जघान रणमूर्धनि ।।
हते तस्मिन्सुरारातौ रावणे बलगर्विते । देवराजः सहस्राक्षः परितुष्टश्च राघवे ।।
तत्र ये वानराः केचिद्राक्षसैनिहता रणे। तानिन्द्रो जीवयामास संसिच्यामृतवृष्टिभिः ॥
ततो येषु प्रदेशेषु कपिगात्रपरिच्युताः । पीयूषबिन्दवः पेतुस्तेभ्यो जाता गुडूचिका ॥ (भा.प्र.३/१-५)
During the Nighantu period, the utility of Guduchi / Giloy reached zenith and extensive description of Guduchi / Giloy appears in all the nighantus. Gradually Gudūcī / Giloy therapeutics. Some of the Yoga granthas have quoted “in the absence of Guduchi satva / Giloy satva, the fresh Giloy juice may be used.
गुडूचीसत्तवस्याभावे स्वरसो योज्या। (यो.र.)
This concept is diagonally opposite to the general principles laid down in the earlier texts.
The leaves of Guduchi are mostly described under the shaka varga and Tikta varga in the Ayurvedic texts.
Classical Categorization of Giloy
- Caraka Samhita : Vayahsthapana, Daha prashamana, Trshna nigraha, Tịptighna, Stanya shodhana,
- Suśruta Samhita : Gudūcyādi, Patolādi, Vallī Pancamūla Kākolyādi, Āragvadhādi
- Astāīga Sangraha : Guļūcyādi, Patolādi, Āragvadhādi
- Dhanvantari Nighantu : Guļūcyādi Varga
- Sodhala Nighanțu S ; Oșadhi Varga
- Bhāva Prakāś Nighanțu : Guļūcyādi Varga
- Rāja Nighanțu : Guðūcyādi Varga
Different Varieties of Giloy
In the original classical literature there is only one variety of Guduchi described. Dhanvantari Nighantu introduced two varieties of Guduchi for the first time. They are : Guduchi and Kandodbhava Guduchi Gangadhara mentioned about ‘Padma Guduchi’ in his commentary (Ganga-C.S.Su.4). The botanical identity of second variety is Tinospora sinensis (Lour.) Merrill or T. malabarica.
Acharya P.V. Sharmaji reported that T. Crispa is being used in Assam for the management of fevers. Classically, “Amruta dvaya” means Guduchi and Haritaki but not two varieties of Guduchi.
Commentator’s views on Guduchi / Giloy
- अमृता = गुडूची । (डल्हण-सु.सू.३७; सु.चि. २; १८; सु. क. ७) आमलकी, अन्ये तु अमृतां गुडूचीमाहू: । (शिवदास:-च.द.३३६)
- अमृताद्वयम् = गुडूची हरीतकी च । (डल्हण- सु.चि.३७)
- अमृतलता = गुडूची । (शिवदास:- च.ज.२६९) (श्रीकण्ठः- सि.यो.२२/१२७)
- अमृतवल्ली = गुडूची । (डल्हण- सु.चि.१०)
- अव्यथा = गुडूची । (च.पा.- च.शा. ७/२०) & (गङ्गा- च.शा. ८/१५)
- कुण्डली = गुडूची । (शिवदास:- च.द. ४३४;५४०); (श्रीकण्ठः- सि.यो.५६/ ५) और (भा.प्र.निघण्टुः)
- गुडूची . = पद्मागुडूची । (गङ्गा- च.सू.४) दाहप्रशमन दशेमानि । जतूकर्ण: ‘पद्यक’ पठति । (गंगा-च.सू.४) गिलोय । (भा.प्र.निघण्टुः)
- गुन्द्रा = गुडूची गुडारोचनी वा । गुडूची । (गंगा- च.सू.४/२५६ & २६०) गुडूची । (गंगा- च.वि.८/११५) ।
- छिन्नोद्भवा = गुडूची । (श्रीकण्ठः-सि.यो.१/२०७) .
- पथ्या = गुडूची । (श्रीकण्ठः- सि.यो. २६/१६)
- पयस्या = आयलक गुडूची वा । (भा.प्र.) & (गंगा- च.सू.४)
- मधुपर्णी = गुडूची । (च.पा.२६/७०) (शिवदास:-च.द.३३४,५२६,६२६)
- मधूलिका = गुडूची, मर्कटतृणमपरे । (डल्हण. सु.उ. २४)
- वत्सादनी = गुडूची । (शिवदासः- च.द.६६४)
- वयस्था =
- गुडूची । (डल्हण-सु.चि.६०) & (हेमाद्रि-ह.जि.१/५४,६/१८) & (भा.प्र.म.चि.)
- गुडूची ब्राहीत्यन्ये । (बल्हण सुचि,३६)
- ब्राही, अन्ये गुडूचीमाहुः । (उल्हणा- मु.ट, ३२)
- शुकानना, ब्राह्मीत्यन्ये । (शिवदास:- च.६, २३७)
- ब्राह्मी, गुडूचीत्यन्ये । अपरे तु निर्गुण्डीमाहुः । (शिवदाय: चद.)
- गुडूची ब्रही वा । (श्रीकण्ठ:- सि.यो. २७/२६)
- विशल्या _ = गुडूची । (डल्हण- सु.उ.६२) का [Note- This term is mostly used for काटपाटला
- सोमवल्ली = गुडूची । (डल्हण- सु.क.१; सु. उ. २८)
- सोमा = गुडूची, सोमलता इत्यन्ये । (डल्हण-सु.क.१)
Botanical Descriptions of Giloy
(i) T. cordifolia Miers (Menispermum cordifolium Willd.)
- It is a large cimber) with succulent, corky and grooved stems; branches possess slender pendulous fleshy roots.
- Leaves – membranous, glabrous, 5 -10 cm long, cordate: petiole 2.5-7 cm long.
- Flowers – in racemes of about 5 cm; axillary, terminal or from the old wood, pale yellowish white in colour.
- Fruits – carpels, dorsally convex, ventrally flat, size of a large pea.
(ii) T. cinensis: (T. malabarica (Lam.) Miers.)
- It is a large climber with 2 cm diameter stem. old branches are smooth and shining, more or less warty light coloured papery bark, yong parts covered with whitish hairs.
- Leaves – membranous, sparingly pubescent above, broadly ovate-cordate, 7.5-23 cm long, petioles 6-12 cm. long, striate.
- Flowers – arranged in pseudo racemes arising from the old branches, simple, pedunculate, yellowish green coloured.
- Fruits – drupes 1-3, scarlet or orange coloured.
Distribution of Giloy
Both species are distributed almost throughout India.
Cultivation of Giloy Plant
Propagated by cuttings of stem. It can be grown in almost any types of soil and under varying climatic conditions.
Pharmacognostic studies of Giloy
The commonest species with which T. cordifolia is likely to be substituted or adultrated are T. sinensis. (Lour.) Merrill. (Syn: T. malabarica (Mier.) and T. crispa (Linn.) Miers ex Hook.f. & Thomas. In northern-India both T. cardifolia and T. sincnsis are met with and often confused with each other. The plant which is commonly met, idenfified was in reality T. sinensis (Kanjilal, 1928)
Kanjilal after giving the morphological description of T. sinensis has mentioned “this plant has long been taken for T. cordifolia”. The plant observed by Namjoshi to which the same description holds good indicate what he came across was not other than T. sinensis. Probably that is the reason why different authors who investigated T. cordifolia for chemical constituents obtained different results (Pendse & Dutt, 1932; Joise, 1941; Kidwa et al; 1949; Sehgal & Majumdar, 1959 and Qudrat-i-khuda et al; 1964).
Distinguishing microscopic characters of T. cordifolia & T. sinensis
|Tissue||T. cordifolia||T. sinensis|
|1||Schlerenchymatous sheath||Become disitegrated into scattered irregular patches in the cortical region.||Broken into areas capping the vascular bundle and remain persistant even after further screening growth.|
|2||Crystal||Absent||A large crystal of calcium oxalate is present within the lumen of each cork cell.|
|5||Xylem||well developed, in each strip of vascular strand.||Poorly developed|
|6||Pith||very narrow and composed of thin walled cells||–|
|7||Starch content||More||Comparatively poor|
Chemical Constituents of Giloy
(i) T. Cordifolia – A diterpenoid of columbin type- tinosporin is isolated from plant (Sci. Cult. 26: p.140, 1960; Chem. Abstr. 61:12331 b, 1964). Tinosporide and cordifolide (Sci. Res. 1:177, 1964). Tinosporidine and ß- sitosterol isolated stems; cordifol, heptacosanol and octacosanol reported from the leaves (Comp. Ind. Med. Plants vol.2 p.679).
A new furanoid diterpene- tinosporide from stems (Ind.J. Chem; 16B:317, 1978 & Chem. Abstr. 93:72009c, 1980).
18-norclerodene glucosie – tinosporaside from stem wood is reported (phytochem. 28:273, 1989 & Chem. Abstr. 112:211629; 1990).
Five diterpene furan glycosider, viz., cordifolisides A-E and two phenyl propane glycosides are isolated from aq. extracts (Gangan et al; 1994).
Isocolumbin, tetrahydropalmatine, magnoflarine and palmatine were isolated from roots (Sarma et al;, 1998).
(ii) T. malabarica – B-sitosterol, tetracosanoic acid and tinosporin are reported (Ind. J. Chem. 20B: 834, 1981).
Tinosporinone and 5-allyloxy-6,7,4-trimethoxyflavones (phytochem. 21:2992, 1982).
Synthesis of 1,1-dibenoylethane (Ind. J. Chem. 22B:183, 1983).
Kokusaginine is reported (Planta Med. 51:529, 1985).
Malabarolide is isolated from the stem is a new bisnorditer penoid (Tetrahedron Lett., 29:4241, 1988). _
Magnoflorine, quercetin-3-0-glucoside, kaemferol and its 3. 0-glucoside from menispermicide are reported from stems (Phytochem. 31:3155, 1992).
New phenolic glycoside- tinosinen I is isolated from the fresh stems (Planta Med., 59:522, 1993).
Properties of Giloy
- Rasa – Tikta, Kasaya (leaf is considered as Madhura by Kaiyadeva)
- Guna – Guru, Snigdha
- Virya – Ushna
- Vipaka – Madhura
- Karma – Tridosa samaka, Medhya, Rasayan. Dipaniya, Grahi, Medohara, Kandhughna, Jvara hara, Daha-prashamana.
Properties of other variety of Guduchi / Giloy are explained seperately.
- Rasa – Katu.
- Virya – Usna
- Vipaka– Katu.
- It is specially useful in visa rogas, vali & Palita.
१. (i) गुडूची स्वरसो तिक्ता कषायोष्णा गुरूस्तथा। त्रिदोषजन्तुरक्तार्श: कुष्ठज्वरहरा परा ॥ गुडूतृट्पाण्डुवातासृक् छानेहत्रिदोषजित् । गुडूची कफवातघ्नी पित्तमेदोविशोषिणी ॥ रक्तवात प्रशमनी कण्डूविसर्पनाशिनी ॥ (ध.नि.१/५-७)
(ii) धारा तिक्ता त्रिदोषनी ग्राहिण्युष्णा रसायनी । दीपनी ज्वरतृट दाहकामला वातरक्तनुत् ।। (शो.नि.)
(iii) गुडूची मधुरा पाके कषाया कटुका लघुः । तिक्तासंग्राहिणी हद्या कषायोष्णा वह्निकृज्जयेत् ॥ दोषकुष्ठकृमिच्छर्दिदाहवातास्रपाण्डुताः । ज्वरामकामलामेह तृष्णा कासान् रसायनी ॥ _(कै.नि.१/९-१०)
(iv) त्रिदोषघ्नं स्वादु पथ्यं चक्षुष्यं दीपनं लघु। वयसःस्थापनं मेध्यममृताशाकमुच्यते ॥ (कै.नि.१/११)
(v) गुडूची कटुका तिक्ता स्वादुपाका रसायनी । संग्राहिणी कषायोष्णा लघ्वी बल्याऽनिदीपनी ।। दोषत्रयामतृड्दाहमेहकासांश्च पाण्डुताम् । कामलाकुष्ठवातास्रज्वरक्रिमिवमिन्हरेत् ॥ प्रमेहश्वासकासार्श: कृच्छ्रहद्रोगवातनुत् ॥ (भा.प्र.३/८-१०)
(vi) ज्ञेया गुडूची गुरुरुष्णवीर्या तिक्ता कषाया ज्वरनाशिनी च। दाहार्तितृष्णावमिरक्तवातप्रमेहपाण्डुभ्रमहारिणी च ॥ (रा.नि.३/५)
२. कन्दोद्भवा गुडूची च कटूष्णा संनिपातहा। विषघ्नी ज्वरभूतघ्नी वलीपलितनाशिनी ॥(ध.नि.१/८)
Indications of Giloy
- Jara Vyadhi
Part used of Giloy
- Areal roots
Dose of Giloy
- Stem powder 3-6 g
- Decoction (1/20) – 50-100 ml
- Infusion (1/10) – 30-60 ml
- Fresh juice of Giloy 10-20 ml
- Guduchi Satva / Giloy satva 1-2 g.
Guduchi Satva / Giloy Satva
The process of ‘Satva’ (cold water extract) is not traceable in the Brhat Trayi texts. It is mainly developed during the medieval period. The process involves, crusing of Guduchi stems and extracting in the cold water at room temperature (i.e without heating). After repeated extractions the cold infusion is dried and the obtained solid powder is called as “Guduchi Satva”.
It has been in extensive use in India as a valuable tonic, alterative and anti-pyretic. It caught the notice of Europeon physicians in inida as a specific tonic, antiperoidic and diuretic (Watt 1893; Pendse & Bhati, 1932).
The drug itself as well as a tincture prepared from it are now official in the Indian pharmacopoeia.
The solid starchy extract is know by name Guduchi Sattvam. Giloy Ka Sat or Palo. Dr. Raghunathan K. is of the openion that the freshly prepard Guduchi / Giloy Satva is good in taste but care lessly prepared one is bitter. The guduchi satva obtained from the root is pure white, where as that obtained from stem may be slighily greyish to greenish.
According to Deshmukh et al., (1957), Guduchi Satva is cream coloured, bitter to taste having starch grains, crystal fibres, vessel portions, parenchyma and cork cells.
1 Guduci / Giloy Sattva is claimed to be a potent tonic and rejuvinator. It is useful in fevers, diarrhoca urinary tract infections, jaundice, skin diseases, irritable bowel syndrome and defects of scmen morphology & spermatogenesis.
1. Tejavati and Guduchi are both called by the name ‘Valkalika’.
2. Pathya (Haritaki), Amalaki and Gudüci share common name “Amrta”.
3. “Kundali” is the synonym used to denote Rogari, Kovidara and Gudici.
4. Guduchi is one of the ingredients of “Caturbhadra”.
Pharmacological Studies of Giloy
1. It is found to be an effective anti-rheumatic and diuretic (Sisodia & Laxminarayan, 1966). Rai & Gupta (1966) have carried out the experiments on the lithotriptic activity of T. Cordifolia. In 22 rats the stone formation was induced by implanting zinc pellets into the bladder. The deposition of the secondary salts over the zinc pellets was inhibited by the aqueous extract of T.Cordifolia.
2. The anti-inflammatory property is reported by Rai & Gupta (1966). Water extract showed significant anti-inflammatory activity in rats against acute and chronic type of inflammation induced by carragenin and adjuvant (Pendse et al; 1980 & 1981).
3. It is reported to be one fifth potent as analgesic when com pared to sodium salicylate.
4. Aqueous extract produced smooth muscle relaxation of intestines, uterus and inhibition of constrictor response of histamine and acetyl choline on smooth muscles (Gupta et al; 1967).
Aqueous extract of the stem was found to antagonize the effects of various agonists like histamine, 5H-T, bradykinin and prostaglandins E, & E, on the smooth muscles of guinea pig and rat (Singh et al; 1975).
5. Administration of aqueous extract (30days) showed significant improvement in the glucose tolerance in rats (Gupta et al; 1964).
Oral administration of the aqueous and alcoholic cxtract of the plant significantly reduced FBS in rabbits and rats. The bitter fraction of aqueous extract produced significant reduction in the blood sugar level, but it effectively inhibited the adrenaline- induced hyperglycaemia significantly (Gupta et al; 1967).
Its aqueous extract (stem) effectively reduced blood-sugar levels in the alloxan- induced hyperglycaemic rats and rabbits in a dose of 400gm/kg (Raghunathan & Sharma, 1968).
The anti-hyperglycaemic effect of aqueous and alcoholic extracts as well as lyophilized powder of T. cordifolia was evaluated in diabetic animals using different doses of diabetogenic agents for varying duration (21-120 days) so as to assess their effect in mild (plasma suger<180mg/dl, duration 21 days), moderated (plaswa sugar>280mg/dl, duration 120 days) and severe (plasma sugar>280gmldl, duration 60 days) DM.
In the pilot study (mild diabetes), maximum reduction of 70.37% in glucose levels was seen in animals receiving 400mg/kg per day of aqueous extract after 3 and !5 weeks of treatment. The percentage reduction in glucose decreased significantly in the moderate and severc diabetics i.e.; 48.81% (Grover et al; 2000).
6. Hepatoprotective activity also reported. Conditions simulating viral hepatitis, fatty infiltration and cirrhosis were induced in rats by using CCI, in different doses and for variable durations Alurand frequency. The acute liver damage was not prevented by T. cordifolia but the chronic damage was effectively prevented, It prevented the fibrous changes and promoted regeneration by parenchymal tissue (Rege et al; 1984a)
Aqueous suspension of the alcoholic extract of the stem provided protection to liver from injurious effects of CCI, in mice, rats and rabbits. The protection is afforded also to the derangement induced by the chronic hepatotoxic effect of CCI, Prevention of fibrosis by the plant might be by virtue of its action on immune process (Singh B, et al; 1984 m), Kupffer cells are major determinants of outcome of liver in jury.
Their activity was therefore studied in a model of chronic liver disease in rats (N=24). The hepatoprotective activity of T. cordifolia was evaluated on Kupffer cell function, by using carbon clearance test as a parameter. The drug showed a significant improvement in kupffer cell function (Deepa ct al: 1994).
Hepato propective activity on CCI – induced hepatotoxicity in Swiss albino mice is reported (Katewa & Arora, 2001).
7. The antioxidant activity of root extract (2-5 & 5g/kg for 6 weeks) is reported in alloxan diabetic rats (Prince P.S.M. et al; 1999). Oral administration of 2.5gm and 5g/kg body weight of aqueous extract of roots for 6 week’s resulted in a significant reduction in thiobarbitonic acid reactive substances and on increase in reduced glutathione, catalase and superoxide dismutase in alloxan diasetic rats (Prince & Menon, 2001).
8. Administration of aqueous extract of roots (2.5 & 5g/kg for 6 weeks) significantly reduced ihe serum and tissue cholasterol, phospholipids and free-fatty acids in ailoxan diabetic rats. The root extract (5g/kg) showed higliest hypolipidemic effect (Prince et al; 1999).
9. Its aqueous extract has a high phagocytic index. The active constituent in the durg was also found to inhibit in vitro the growths of M. tuberculosis (Annual Report- ICMR, 1968-69; 1992 & Anon; 1976).
10. Ethanolic extract of stem and leaves exhibited significant antipyretic activity in experimental rats (Vedavathy & Rao, 1991).
11. Antiallergic properties of an aqueous extract of T. cordifolia stem on histamine induced bronchospasm in guinea pigs and experimental rats were evaluated. The extract significantly reduced the bronchospasm in guinea pigs, reduced the capillary permeability in mice and reduced the number of dis rupted mast cells in rats (Nayanpalli et al; 1986).
12. T. cardifolia was found to be active against Leishmania donovani when administered to golden hamsters (Singha U.K. et al; 1992). Alcoholic extract is found to be effective against Esch. Coli (Gupta et al; 1967).
13. The efficacy of T. cordifolia was evaluated against E. coli induced peritonitis in mice. Pretreatment with T. cordifolia (100mg/kg/day for 15 days; orally), produced leucocytosis with 26% mortality at 16 hrs, as against 100% in controlled animals. These results indicative of immunomodulatory properties of the drugs (Thatte U. et al; 1987).
The protective effect of pretreatment with T. cordifolia against mixed abdominal infection induced by ceacal ligation was studied in rats. The drug (20mg; 40mg & 100mg/kg body wt.) effectively reduced the mertality rate in a dose dependant manner. The results were comparable to that in the group given metronidazole and the infection and better sac formation.
There was no increase in the peripheral neutrophil count and peritoneal macrophages which was assciated wiih increased phagocytic activity of macrophages (Dhanukar et al; 1988).
14. The potentiality of T. cordifolia in cancer management is identified (Thatte U. et al; 1996). Administration of stem methanolic extraet to BALBIC mice (200mg/kg, i.p. daily for 5 days) increased the total WBC count significantlly (p<0.001). It also increased bone-marrow cellularity and alpha-esterase positive cells in bone-marrow indicating increased malnutrition of stem cells.
Administration of the extract also significantly raised humoral cells response, as seen from the incrcase in plaque- forming cells in the spleen and circulatory anti-body titre and to produce an enhancement in macrophage activation. The extract decreased the solid tumour growth and synergistically acted with cyclophosphamide in reducing (83%) the animal tumours.
15. 60 rats of Charles Foster strain weighing 200-250gm were used to study two formulations with T. cordifolia. There were 6 groups with 10 rats each. All animals feel for 15 days in prescribed doses after which they were subjected to cold immobilization stress. Subsequantly, Evans Blue was injected, 15 minutes, after injection animals were killed and stomach removed.
The quality of Evans Blue in the stomach was established. Pretreatment with all plant products (including T. cordifolia) significantly reduced gastric damage (Till, 1994). The alcoholic extract of roots was found to possess normalising the activity against stress-induced changes in norepinephrine (NE), dopamine (DA), 5- hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) and 5- hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIA) levels in rats (Sarma D.N.K. et al; 1995). Both T. cordiolia and C. asiatica (ethanol extraets) exhibited significant antistress activity (Sarma D.N.K., 1996).
16. T. cordifolia exhibited mild anti-ulcerogenic activity against gastric ulcers in rats (Biswas et al; 1993). The ethanolic extracts of the roots of T. cordifolia and centella asiatica administered at a dose of 100mg/kg daily, were observed to induce a marked protective action against an 8 hour resistant stress induced ulceration. The activity was found to be comparable to that of diazepam in experimental albino rats. The antiulcer activity has been reported as a part of overall adaptogenic activity (Sarma, 1995).
17. I.V. administration of water extract in doses of 5,10 and 15mg/ kg produced a marked but transient fall in B.P. along with bradycardia in the anaesthetized dogs. A decrease in the coronary out flow in the isolated preparation of rabbit heart and above findings suggest that the basic action of the extract resembles with the cholinometric drugs. Il significantly der creased blood urea levels in uremic dogs and patients (Singh et al. 1975).
Clinical Studies of Giloy
- A clinical trial on 20 T.B. patients (2 months study) revealed that T. cordifolia lowered clincal composite score carlier than placebo, produced higher weight gain, reduced sputum conversion time, hastened radiological recovery offered better quality of life in early phase. Therefore the use of T. cordifolia as an adjuvant to anti-tubercular chemotherapy is justified (Rege D.A. et al; 2001).
- Water extract of T. cordifolia was clinically evaluated in 50 patients of Āmavāta and Sandhigata vāta. Out of these 48% got complete relief, 32% got partial relief and 20% showed some improvement (Mhaiskar V.B, et al; 1980). Clinical trial with a combination of Sunthi and Gudūcī showed encourag ing results (Kishore et al; 1980).
- It has been observed that during the treatment with T.cordifolia, the frequency of asthmatic attacks has been considerably reduced in all asthmatics. There was also reduction in the severity of symptoms particularly cough and wheczing. Reducing the requirement of bronchodilators, including corticosteroids in noticed. Adjuvant treatment with T. cordifolia helps to maintain adequate pulmonary functioning in chronic asthmatics and maintain quality of life (Kulkarni, 1998).
- Guduchi Satwa was administered in a dose of 500mg three times a day to 40 patients suffering from fever. Relatively long term treatment of the patients was needed to get the best results (Kumar & Srivastava, 1995).
- In a clinical trial Guļūci (powder 1-3gm t.d.s. and leaf juice 10 ml t.d.s.) was administered orally of for 15 days in 20 patients suffering from jaundice. The results showed significant improvement (Shyamsunder, 1976).
- 6. In other clinical trals its effection: Tvak rogas i.e; skin disor. ders (Dwivedi, 1989); Pandu i.e; anaemia (Meena R.R., 1994); Vāta rakta i.e; arthritis (Balagangadhar, 1986 & Diwan, 1989); Medhya Rasāyana effect i.e; brain tonic (Mehta, 1994 & Khara, 1983) etc.. were studied and reported.
Benefits of Giloy / Therapeutic Uses of Giloy
1. Medhya (Brain Tonic) – The fresh juice of Giloy (20ml twice daily) may be used.
रसो गुडूच्या मेध्यानि चैतानि रसायनानि । (च.चि.१/१)
2. Jvara (Fever) – (a) Giloy juice + Satavari juice equal parts (10ml each) are mixed together and given along with jaggary (Gula), in vata jvara (fever).
गुडूच्याः स्वरसो ग्राह्यः शतावर्यश्च तत्समः । निहन्यात् सगुडः पीत: सद्योऽनिलकृतं ज्वरम् ।। (सु.उ.३९/१७४)
(b) Decoction prepared with Guduci, Parpati & Amalaki (500 100ml) may be administered in case of Pitta Jvara (fever).
अमृतं पर्पटो धात्री क्वाथ: पित्तज्वरं जयेत् ॥ त्रा क्वाथः पित्तज्वर जयत् ।। (हा.सं.३/२/७१)
3. Prameha (Diabetes) – Giloy juice with honey.
- मधुयुक्तं गुडूच्या वा रसमामलकस्य वा।। (अ.हचि.१२/६)
- अमृताया: रसः क्षौद्रयुक्तः सर्वप्रमेहजित् । (शा.सं.२/१/७)
4. Slipada (Filariasis0 – Giloy Juice along with gingly oil (Taila) is given orally.
श्लीपदध्नो रसोऽभ्यासात् गुडूच्यास्तैल संयुतः । (च.द.४२/१६)
5. Amlapitta (Acidity) – Leaves of Giloy, Nimba and Patola are made into juice and administered along with honey.
छिन्नोद्भवा निम्बपटोलपत्रं क्षौद्रन्वितं पीतमनेकरूपम् । सुदारूणं हन्ति तदम्लपित्तं यथाशनिस्तालतरूं प्रवृद्धम् ॥(भा.प्र.चि.१०/१६)
6. Chardi (Vomiting) – Giloy Hima Kasaya may be given orally along with honey.
गुडुच्या: रचितं हन्ति हिमं मधुसमन्वितम् । दुर्निवारमपि च्छदि त्रिदोषजनितां बलात् ॥ (बा.प्र.चि.१७/२१)
7. Vatarakta (Gout) – Chronic administration of Giloy in either juice or paste or powder or decoction form will definitely cure Vatarakta.
गुडूच्या: स्वरसं कल्कं चूर्णं वा क्वाथमेव वा । प्रभूतकालमासेव्य मुच्यते वातशोणितम् ।।(भा.प्र.चि.२९/४१) & (वृ.मा.२३/१०)
8. Hridagat Vata – Giloy + Marica are to be taken with hot water early in the morning.
हृदयानिलनाशाय गुडूची मरिचान्विताम् । पिबेत् प्रातः प्रयत्नेन सम्यगुष्णाम्भसा सह ।। (वं.से.वातव्याधि.)
Important Preparations of Giloy
- Amrtadi guggulu.
- Rala Guducyadi Tailam.
- Pancha Tikta Guggulu Ghrtam.
- Candraprabha vati.
FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS
Can Giloy be taken daily?
Giloy can be taken everyday, with some restraint yet for individuals with any medical issue, the Ayurveda Expert should be counseled. The term and frequency of Giloy utilization should be administered to keep away from additional Health complication.
Which is the best time to have giloy?
You can drink Giloy juice every morning but avoid taking it at evening or night. You can have Giloy tablets, capsules, or power anytime during the day. For best results, drink Giloy juice in morning an empty stomach.
How to make Giloy kadha?
Giloy Kadha (decoction) can be made by these two processes:
Take a few fresh Giloy leaves or 4 -5cms stem and boil them in water (400ml) till the water is reduced to one fourth (i.e 100ml). Cool the liquid and strain.
In case of unavailability of fresh Giloy leaves or stem, you can buy Giloy powder, take 1 tablespoon of the powder and boil it in 2 cups of water. Boil until the volume is reduced to one fourth. Cool and strain.
Can we eat Giloy leaves?
Fresh leaves of Giloy can be eat consistently for keeping a healthy body.
Can Giloy (Guduchi) cure arthritis?
In Ayurveda, Giloy or Guduchi is one of the valuable herb for treating joint pain. Ayurveda accepts that Ama has the primary association in any kinds of joint pain and Giloy works to reduce Ama by improving digestion and absorption due to its Deepan (appetizer) and Pachan (digestive) properties. Giloy works on reducing Ama, thereby decreasing pain and swelling in the body.
Is Giloy safe for kids?
Giloy can be given to kids for a short timeframe to manage the loss of appetite, stomach issues, fever and to improve general debility
Does Giloy help boost immunity?
Yes, consuming Giloy helps to boost immunity due to its Rasayana (rejuvenation) property. This helps your body to develop the tendency to fight back against all viral or bacterial infections and keep up with great inside wellbeing.
The content is purely informative and educational in nature and should not be construed as medical advice. Please use the content only in consultation with an appropriate certified medical or healthcare professional.